Sources
Sources
1. Nordmenn i Fangenskap 1940-1945, Kristian Ottosen, Universitetsforlaget.
2. Askild Eknæs, Ættebok for Hosanger fram til omlag 1960, Hosanger Sogelag, 1.
3. Bergens Tidende, 09.april.2001.
Jubilant
Karla Særvold, 5200 Os, fyller 85 år i dag mandag 9. april. Hun fylte slik 24 år den dagen i 1940 da tyskerne innledet invasjonen i Norge. Ulven i Os har vært ekserserplass siden 1885 og allerede den første krigshøsten gjorde tyskerne om plassen til fangeleir.
Folk i Os hjalp fangene både med mat og klær, og Karla Særvold var en av de kvinnene som her gjorde en imponerende innsats. Etter hvert drev hun med langt farligere ting enn å skaffe mat og klær, hun smuglet hemmelige meldinger inn i leiren til bestemte fanger og meldinger ut av leiren til folk som måtte skynde seg i dekning. Mer enn en gang gjorde hun lange turer i den sammenhengen. Karsten Wang het en mann fra Sandefjord. Han ble dødsdømt og siden skutt på Ulven. Men før dommen ble eksekvert, reiste Karla Særvold til Oslo og hentet fru Wang og ekteparets lille sønn, slik at de kunne få hilse på Karsten for siste gang. Ettersom Karla Særvold var aktiv på dette feltet i flere år, er det et under at hun ikke ble avslørt og arrestert. Når undertegnede snakker med folk som har sittet på Ulven, får han nesten uten unntak beskjed om å hilse til Karla Særvold.
I sin ungdom var hun en lovende skuespiller og ble oppfordret av kyndige folk til å slå inn på den veien. De rådene fulgte hun dessverre ikke, men hun dyrket lenge sitt talent i lokale oppsetninger i hjembygda. Hun var en gledesspreder både i revyen og ellers, og en gledesspreder er hun fremdeles.

Vi er svært mange som ønsker Karla Særvold hjertelig til lykke med dagen

Arnfinn Haga
4. 13.02.01, Nyheter, Aftenposten.
5. Vår felles slektshistorie. Kap. 6: Galt eller Galtung. Hardanger/Sunnhordland/Ryfylke, Perioden 1100 - 1650
6. Nils Person Staalby

Han var svensk, født i Medåker i Uppsalas län. Ble dreng for storebroren Olof som han røk uklar med. 

I 1715 lyger han seg 2 år eldre enn han er, og blir innrulert som soldat i Strömmsholms regiment. En mil hjemmefra får han tildelt eget soldat torp, Staaltorp slik reglene er for militære. Han har våpen uniform og utstyr hjemme. Nabobønder er forpliktet til å stelle torpet mens soldaten er i krigen.

Ved juletider 1715 blir han mobilisert og må forlate Staaltorp. Etter fremmøte får han tilnavnet Staalbåge etter torpet han fikk, og han tilhører nå Strömsholms kompani, 1. bataljon av Vestmannland regiment, soldat nr. 1043. 26 februar 1716 er han med Karl VII's arme i felttoget mot Norge.

Etter flere treffninger kommer de seg rundt de største forsvarsverkene, og når frem til Christiania. Han er redd og krigen får ham til å angre på at han løy seg 2 år eldre enn han
i vrkeligheten var. Regimentet, som talte 600 mann, ledet av oberst Falkenberg blir beordret mot Moss og inntar byen uten særlig motstand. Grytidlig den 26. april 1716 nærmer de norske styrkene til Brigadær Bugge seg sentrum av byen fra sør. Fra nord kommer troppene til oberstløytnant Huitfeld. På havnen var admiral Gabel kommet inn med krigskip med 64 kanoner. Nils var nå, sammen med sine 600 våpenbrødre, omringet av en styrke som talte ca. 2000 mann. Det ble forhandlet om kapitulasjon, men de svenske offiserene hadde fått klare ordrer at overgivelse til fienden ville bli straffet med døden. De norske styrkene hadde ikke annet valg enn å åpne ild mot sentrum av byen. Da striden hadde vart i 3 timer, var 78 svenske og 30 norske soldater falt og mange var såret. Offiserene forstår nå at det er nytteløst å forsette kampen, og 522 soldater og offiserer overgir seg betingelsesløst. I frykt for et større svensk motangrep mot byen, hvor fangene er holdt, blir samtlige svensker ført ombord i krigskipene under admiral Gabels kommando, og ført over til Drammen. En sommerdag et par måneder senere blir Nils Person Stålby sammen med noen andre fanger fraktet til Bergenhus. Andre blir fraktet til andre byer i landet. Siden de fleste unge menn er mobilisert til krigstjeneste er det prekær mangel på arbeidskraft på gårdene. Fra Bergen blir han fraktet til Hope i Sunhordland. Godseier Peder Tysse i Samnanger får beskjed om at han kan hente en svensk krigsfange til å hjepe seg på gårdene sine så lenge krigen varer.

Det er tøft for Nils å komme til Samnanger, folk spytter i forakt når de ser ham i sin slitte blågule karoliner-uniform. Men en ung pike ser forsiktig på ham og smiler, dette varmer og gir ham håp. Piken er Anna, datter av selveste godseieren. Om sommeren må jentene opp til stølene ved Kvamskogen. Peder er bekymret for jentene, siden det er mye bjørn i området. Han beordrer derfor Nils til å jakte på bjørnene og holde dem
borte fra setra. Hele sommeren kan de møtes uten at noen får vite om deres hemmelighet.
En kirkesøndag i 1718 leser presten opp brevet han har fått om at Karl VII er falt ved Halden festning, og at kampene ved grensen er opphørt. Det utspiller seg gledessener i kirken, men Anna virker urolig, hun snur seg og ser nervøst bak på Nils som sitter på bakerste benk på motsatt side. Hva vil nå skje med deres fremtid. Som ventet får han beskjed av Peder å gi seg iveg mot Sverige, Anna forteller da om deres forhold og at hun er med barn. Peder blir rasende, Anna truer med å kaste seg i fossen hvis ikke Nils får bli. Peder forstår at datteren deres ikke kan få et barn som ikke er ekte født, derfor må de gifte seg. Siden hun er gravid får hun ikke bære brudekrone, men må ha på skaut i
brylløpet som blir holdt rett før Jul den 17. desember 1720. Nils sin bakgrunn som fiende er snart glemt og han blir etterhvert godt likt i Samnanger.

De overtar gården Tveit og her får de 8 barn sammen. 15 lykkelige år får de på gården, som bare er deres, helt til året 1733, da katastrofen atter en gang rammer dem. En kraftig influensa-epidimi rammer landet, Nils blir alvorlig syk og på høsten samme år mister han bevistheten og forlater Anna og barna, da han blir tatt dit hvor tid og rom går i ett. Nils er borte, en epoke er over og en lokal legende er blitt virkelighet. Anna kan ikke være alene og treffer Peder Tomassen Tysseland og gifter seg om igjen i 1734.  De forlater Tveit og bosetter seg på hennes fares gård på Langeland i Samnanger.

Denne historien er i hovedsak basert på Atle Austestads bok: Nils Stålby, Karolinen i Samnanger.
7. Geir Kleiveland og Beate Homlong, “Mellom bakkar og berg” Gard og ætt i Meland, Meland kommune 2004, Band III.
8. Gaute Losnegård, Jondal kommune, Gards- og slektssoge, Jondal Kommune, 1 og 2.
9. “"Vår felles slektshistorie" (VFS),” Odd Handegårds.
Les mer om denne CDen her:

http://home.no.net/valesvei/
10. Jacob T. Larsen, Gards- og Ættesoge, Fana bygdebok, Fana Bygdeboknemnd, 4.
11. Wangensteen, “Fredrik Chr. Grønvald: Stamtavle over Adelslægten Orning,” http://www.wangensteen.net/Bibliotek/orning/index.html, 1. september 2010.
12. Elin Galtung Lihaug, Norsk Slektshistorisk Tidsskrift, (Terje Gudbrandson og Per Reidar Christiansen), Norsk Slektshistorisk Forening, Bind XXXIX - Hefte 1.
13. Nils Tveit, Os III Gards- og Ættesoga, Bergen A.S. Centraltrykkeriet 1941.
Os - Eit utsyn over Osbygdi frå gamall tid til no.
14. Roger de Robelin, Skanke ätten, Østlands-Posten, Larvik, ISBN: 82-993791-0-5.
15. Smør-ætta tilhørte høyadelen, med riddere og baroner. De hadde et kjent familievåpen med et løvehode som viste til slektskapsbånd med det gamle kongehuset. 

Kilde: Sunnhordlandsslekter 1 og 2.

Smør, norsk adelig ætt fra middelalderen; eide store jordegods, især på Vestlandet. Flere av slektens medlemmer var riksråder. Slektens siste mann var riksforstanderen Jon Svaleson Smør, død 1483.

Kilde: Fokus 98 Aschehoug og Gyldendals Multimedialeksikon.
16. Orning-slekten er en gammel dansk adelsslekt, nevnt på 1300-tallet. Den eldste stamfaren som vi kjenner til vår gren av slekten er Svend Orning, nevnt i 1442.
(Næss/Kolltveit:Strandebarm og Varaldsøy)
17. Særvold vestre Gnr. 40, bnr. 5. P.adr. Nordre Neset.
Sk.mk. 1,93. D. jord 30 da (myr- og leirjord), anna jbr. areal 80 da, utm. - Våningshus bygt 1920, løe og fjøs gml. - 1 hest, 2 kyr, 8 ungdyr. - Gamal ættegard. Eigaren tok over 1946 etter far sin. - Bær og fruktdyrking.
Eigar: Wilhelm Særvold f. 1906 - son av Nils Johnsen Særvold og Ingeborg f. Særvold - g. 1938 m. Borghild Haugland. Barn: Nils Ivar f. 1948.
18. Listen over gårder er hentet fra "Norske Gaardnavne".
b.11, s.187

24. Austestad. Udt. au2stesta. -- Ostestad NRJ. II 533. Øffste-
stedt 1563. Offstestaid 1567. Øssta 1610. Østestad 1610. 1612. 1668.
Oustestad 1668.
Enestaaende Navn. Forskjelligt fra Austad, Haus GN. 40. Da -stofa f.,
Stue, i denne Landsdel kan faa Udtalen -sta (jfr. GN. 32), kan Navnet mulig
forudsætte en gammel Form *Austrstofa, den østre Stue, sms. med Adv.
austr, øst. Se Indl. S. 78.
19. Hilmar Kristoffer Flaterås, “Slekta fra Lysøy,” 7. og 10. juli 2001, hilmarkf@c2i.net.
20. Bayeux Tapetet og slaget ved Hastings 1066 av Mogens Rud.
21. Brian C. Tompsett, “Directory of Royal Genealogical Data,” http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/royal/catalog.html.
At this site I have a database containing the genealogy of the British Royal family and those linked to it via blood or marriage relationships. It contains, in fact, the genealogy of almost every ruling house in the western world because of the intermarriage that took place between them at some time or another. There are in excess of 30,000 individuals from the earliest times to the present in the database.
22. Førde bygdebok I (Finn Borgen Førsund) ISBN 82-992197-2-8
23. Geir Kleiveland og Beate Homlong, “Mellom bakkar og berg” Gard og ætt i Meland, Meland kommune 2004, Band II.
24. Røykenes - Namnet kjem truleg av røyk, skodde, som jamt ligg her i dalstroket og over dei små vatni som elvi lagar so mange av upp gjenom dalen her. Men det er heller ikkje utruleg at namnet kjem av rauk, ein liten høystakk. Garden låg lenge øyde, og det kann tenkjast at folket på Søfteland slog høy etter at garden vart aud og sette høyet i stakk på neset her til dess dei fekk kjøra det heim på vinterføre. I det høve må garden ha havt eit eldre namn som vart gløymd.
25. Ådna, Lars Martinusson, Ætt og Æle, Ådna Sokn., Haus 3.
26. Willy Kringeland, “Willys slektssider,” http://www.hinsides.no/slekt/slekter/dal.html, 29.01.06.
willyslekt@hinsides.no
27. Yngve Nedrebø, SAB
28. Nils Tveit, Os soga, II.
Os
Eit utsyn over Osbygdi frå gamall tid til no
II. Gards- og ættesoga
29. Lars Martinusson Ådna, Haus i soga og segn, Boktrykk L. L Bergen 1964, III.
30. Håkon S. Aasheim, Hamre, Gards- og ættesoge for tidligare Hamre Kommune og sokn på Osterøy, Hamre Bygdeboknemnd 1990, Bind 1.
31. Nils Hjelmetveit, Bygdebok for Alenfit, Sverre Kildahls Boktrykkeri (Oslo 1968), Lindås 1.
32. Listen over gårder er hentet fra "Norske Gaardnavne".
b.11, s.305
68. Havre. Udt. ha:2vrå. -- [Hafra (Nom.) DN. XII 29, 1303]
i Hafra DN. XII 25 27. 29. 30, 1303. Haure NRJ. II 493. [Hoffræ (!)
NRJ. III 450.] Haffre 1563. 1567. 1610. 1611. 1667. Hawre 1723.
Kunde efter den nuv. Udtaleform synes at være best. Dat. Flt., "og i
Overensstemmelse dermed kunde man forklare i Hafra af Nom. Hafri m.
Rimeligere er det dog vel at opfatte denne Form som Hafrá, Bukke-Elven,
[af Dyrenavnet hafr m. og á f.]; der kommer her en Bæk styrtende ned
over den bratte Li. Denne Opfatning bestyrkes derved, at Hafra findes
brugt ogsaa som Nominativform i DN. XII 29" O. R. Se NE. S. 89 f.
33. Kalles “eneboerprinsene” fordi de søkte tilflukt i fjellhuler i nærheten av Rhedae under den arabiske invasjonen. Den uthuggede sten fra deres felles grav befinner seg nå på museet i Rennes-le-Châtau. (Baigent/Leigh/Lincon: Det hellige blod og den hellige Gral)
34. Edith Hamilton, Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes., New York: Mentor, 1940, ISBN: 0451628039.
Source:
Edith Hamilton. Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes.
New York: Mentor, 1940. ISBN: 0451628039.
35. Bibelen.
The Genealogy of Joseph step-father of Jesus and husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary

*This entire genealogy was taken from the Bible:
Adam to Noah, GEN 5:1-32
Noah to Peleg, GEN 10:1-32
King David to Joseph (wife of Mary), MAT 1:1-17

** From Adam to Abraham – 20 generations
** From Adam to Joseph – 59 generations
*** From Abraham to King David –14 generations
*** From King David to Josiah (Babalonian departure)-14 generations
***From Josiah to Joseph – 14 generations

Matthew 1:

The Genealogy of Christ


1:1 This is the record of the genealogy1 of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

1:2 Abraham was the father2 of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers, 1:3 Judah the father of Perez and Zerah (by Tamar), Perez the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram, 1:4 Ram the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon, 1:5 Salmon the father of Boaz (by Rahab), Boaz the father of Obed (by Ruth), Obed the father of Jesse, 1:6 and Jesse the father of David the king.

David was the father of Solomon (by the wife of Uriah3), 1:7 Solomon the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asa,4 1:8 Asa the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Joram, and Joram the father of Uzziah, 1:9 Uzziah the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah, 1:10 Hezekiah the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amon,5 Amon the father of Josiah, 1:11 and Josiah6 the father of Jeconiah and his brothers, at the time of the deportation to Babylon.

1:12 After7 the deportation to Babylon, Jeconiah became the father of Shealtiel,8 Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel, 1:13 Zerubbabel the father of Abiud, Abiud the father of Eliakim, Eliakim the father of Azor, 1:14 Azor the father of Zadok, Zadok the father of Achim, Achim the father of Eliud, 1:15 Eliud the father of Eleazar, Eleazar the father of Matthan, Matthan the father of Jacob, 1:16 and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, by whom9 Jesus was born, who is called Christ.10

1:17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations, and from David to the deportation to Babylon, fourteen generations, and from the deportation to Babylon to Christ,11 fourteen generations.

1tn Grk "the book of the genealogy." The noun bivblo" (biblo"), though it is without the article, is to be translated as definite due to Apollonius' corollary and the normal use of anarthrous nouns in titles
2tn Grk "fathered."
3sn By the wife of Uriah, i.e., Bathsheba (cf. 2 Sam 11:3).
4tc The reading "Asaph" is found in the earliest and most widespread witnesses (Ì1vid Í B C Dluc Ë1 Ë13 700 et pauci), a variant spelling on Asa. Although Asaph was a psalmist and Asa was a king, it is doubtful that the author mistook one for the other, since other ancient documents have variant spellings on the king's name (such as "Asab," "Asanos," and "Asaph").
5tc "Amos" is the reading found in the earliest and best witnesses, and as such is most likely original, but this is a variant spelling of the name "Amon." The translation uses the more well-known spelling "Amon" found in the Hebrew MT and the majority of LXX mss. See also the textual discussion of "Asa" versus "Asaph" (vv. 7-8); the situation is similar.
6sn Before the mention of Jeconiah, several medieval mss add Jehoiakim, in conformity with the genealogy in 1 Chr 3:15-16. But this alters the count of fourteen generations (v. 17). It is evident that the author is selective in his genealogy for a theological purpose.
7tn Because of the difference between Greek style, which usually begins a sentence with a conjunction, and English style, which generally does not, the conjunction dev (de) is not translated here.
8sn The Greek text and the KJV read Salathiel. Most modern English translations use the OT form of the name (cf. Ezra 3:2).
9sn The pronoun whom is feminine gender in the Greek text, referring to Mary. The Sinaitic Syriac ms alone alters the text of v. 16 to indicate that Joseph was the natural father of Jesus ("Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the virgin, fathered Jesus who is called the Christ"). But this lone versional witness finds no support in the fathers, other versions, or any Greek mss and is therefore to be regarded as spurious.
10tn Or "Messiah"; both "Christ" (Greek) and "Messiah" (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean "one who has been anointed."

sn The term cristov" (cristos) was originally an adjective ("anointed"), developing in LXX into a substantive ("an anointed one"), then developing still further into a technical generic term ("the anointed one"). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus' last name.
11tn Or "Messiah"; both "Christ" (Greek) and "Messiah" (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean "one who has been anointed."



Structure of Matthew's Genealogy:
Matthew's structure descends from father to son, beginning with Abraham. Additionally, he divides the genealogy into three groups of fourteen generations, separated by important historic points (Matthew 1:17).
The three divisions are as follows:
1. Abraham to David's reign (1:2-6).
2. David's kingdom to the Babylonian captivity (1:6-11).
3. Release from captivity to Christ (1:12-16).
The names in each division appear below.
Abraham to David David to Captivity Release to Christ
Abraham David Jeconiah
Isaac Solomon Shealtiel
Jacob Abijah Zerubbabel
Judah Asa Abiud
Perez Jehoshaphat Eliakim
Hezron Joram Azor
Ram Uzziah Zadok
Amminadab Jotham Achim
Nashon Ahaz Eliud
Salmon Hezekiah Eleazar
Boaz Manasseh Matthan
Obed Amon Jacob
Jesse Josiah Joseph
David Jeconiah Jesus Christ
36. Judah and Tamar

38:1 At that time Judah left1 his brothers and stayed2 with an Adullamite man3 named Hirah. 38:2 There Judah saw the daughter of a Canaanite man4 named Shua.5 Judah acquired her as a wife6 and had marital relations with her.7 38:3 She became pregnant8 and had a son. Judah named9 him Er. 38:4 She became pregnant again and had another son, whom she named Onan. 38:5 Then she had10 yet another son, whom she named Shelah. She gave birth to him in Kezib.11

38:6 Judah acquired12 a wife for Er his firstborn; her name was Tamar. 38:7 But Er, Judah's firstborn, was evil in the Lord's sight, so the Lord killed him.

38:8 Then Judah said to Onan, "Have sexual relations with13 your brother's wife and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her, so that you may raise14 up a descendant for your brother."15 38:9 But Onan knew that the child16 would not be considered his.17 So whenever18 he had sexual relations with19 his brother's wife, he withdrew prematurely,20 so as not to give his brother a descendant. 38:10 What he did was evil in the Lord's sight, so the Lord21 killed him too.

38:11 Then Judah said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, "Live as a widow in your father's house until Shelah my son grows up." For he thought,22 "I don't want him to die like his brothers."23 So Tamar went and lived in her father's house.

38:12 After some time24 Judah's wife, the daughter of Shua, died. After Judah was consoled, he left for Timnah to visit his sheepshearers, along with25 his friend Hirah the Adullamite. 38:13 Tamar was told,26 "Look, your father-in-law is going up27 to Timnah to shear his sheep." 38:14 So she removed her widow's clothes and covered herself with a veil. She wrapped herself and sat at the entrance to Enaim which is on the way to Timnah. (She did this because28 she saw that she had not been given to Shelah as a wife, even though he had now grown up.)29

38:15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a prostitute,30 because she had covered her face. 38:16 He turned aside to her along the road and said, "Come on! I want to have sex with you."31 (He did not realize32 it was his daughter-in-law.) She asked, "What will you give me in exchange for having sex with you?"33 38:17 He replied, "I'll send you a young goat from the flock." She asked, "Will you give me a pledge until you send it?"34 38:18 He said, "What pledge should I give you?" She replied, "Your seal, your cord, and the staff that's in your hand." So he gave them to her and had sex with her.35 She became pregnant by him. 38:19 She left immediately,36 removed her veil, and put on her widow's clothes.

38:20 Then Judah had his friend37 the Adullamite take a young goat to get back from the woman the items he had given in pledge,38 but Judah's friend39 could not find her. 38:21 He asked the men who were there,40 "Where is the cult prostitute41 who was at Enaim by the road?" But they replied, "There has been no cult prostitute here." 38:22 So he returned to Judah and said, "I couldn't find her. Moreover, the men of the place said, 'There has been no cult prostitute here.'" 38:23 Judah said, "Let her keep the things42 for herself. Otherwise we will appear to be dishonest.43 I did indeed send this young goat, but you couldn't find her."

38:24 After three months Judah was told,44 "Your daughter-in-law Tamar has turned to prostitution,45 and as a result she has become pregnant."46 Judah said, "Bring her out and let her be burned!" 38:25 While they were bringing her out, she sent word47 to her father-in-law: "I am pregnant by the man to whom these belong."48 Then she said, "Identify49 the one to whom the seal, cord, and staff belong." 38:26 Judah recognized them and said, "She is more upright50 than I, because I wouldn't give her to Shelah my son." He did not have sexual relations with her51 again.

38:27 When it was time for her to give birth, there were twins in her womb. 38:28 While she was giving birth, one child52 put out his hand, and the midwife took a scarlet threat and tied it on his hand, saying, "This one came out first." 38:29 But then he drew back his hand, and his brother came out before him.53 She said, "How you have broken out of the womb!"54 So he was named Perez.55 38:30 Afterward his brother came out-the one who had the scarlet thread on his hand-and he was named Zerah.56
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1tn Heb "went down from."
2tn Heb "and he turned aside unto."
3tn Heb "a man, an Adullamite."
4tn Heb "a man, a Canaanite."
5tn Heb "and his name was Shua."
6tn Heb "and he took her."
7tn Heb "and he went to her." This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
8tn Or "she conceived" (also in the following verse).
9tc Some mss read this verb as feminine, "she called," to match the pattern of the next two verses. But the MT, "he called," should probably be retained as the more difficult reading.

tn Heb "and he called his name." The referent (Judah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
10tn Heb "and she added again and she gave birth." The first verb and the adverb emphasize that she gave birth once more.
11tn Or "and he [i.e., Judah] was in Kezib when she gave birth to him."
12tn Heb "and Judah took."
13tn Heb "go to." The expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
14tn The imperative with the prefixed conjunction here indicates purpose.
15sn Raise up a descendant for your brother. The purpose of this custom, called the levirate system, was to ensure that no line of the family would become extinct. The name of the deceased was to be maintained through this custom of having a child by the nearest relative. See M. Burrows, "Levirate Marriage in Israel," JBL 59 (1940): 23-33.
16tn Heb "offspring."
17tn Heb "would not be his," that is, legally speaking. Under the levirate system the child would be legally considered the child of his deceased brother.
18tn The construction shows that this was a repeated practice and not merely one action.

sn The text makes it clear that the purpose of the custom was to produce an heir for the deceased brother. Onan had no intention of doing that. But he would have sex with the girl as much as he wished. He was willing to use the law to gratify his desires, but was not willing to do the responsible thing.
19tn Heb "he went to." This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
20tn Heb "he spoiled [his semen] to the ground." Onan withdrew prematurely and ejaculated on the ground to prevent his brother's widow from becoming pregnant.
21tn Heb "he"; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
22tn Heb "said."
23tn Heb "Otherwise he will die, also he, like his brothers."

sn I don't want him to die like his brothers. This clause explains that Judah had no intention of giving Shelah to Tamar for the purpose of the levirate marriage. Judah apparently knew the nature of his sons, and feared that God would be angry with the third son and kill him as well.
24sn After some time. There is not enough information in the narrative to know how long this was. The text says "the days increased." It was long enough for Shelah to mature and for Tamar to realize she would not have him.
25tn Heb "and he went up to the shearers of his sheep, he and."
26tn Heb "And it was told to Tamar, saying."
27tn The active participle indicates the action was in progress or about to begin.
28tn The Hebrew text simply has "because," connecting this sentence to what precedes. For stylistic reasons the words "she did this" are supplied in the translation and a new sentence begun.
29tn Heb "she saw that Shelah had grown up, but she was not given to him as a wife."
30tn Heb "he reckoned her for a prostitute," which was what Tamar had intended for him to do. She obviously had some idea of his inclinations, or she would not have tried this risky plan.
31tn Heb "I will go to you." The imperfect verbal form probably indicates his desire here. The expression "go to" is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
32tn Heb "for he did not know that."
33tn Heb "when you come to me." This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
34tn Heb "until you send."
35tn Heb "and he went to her." This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
36tn Heb "and she arose and left," the first verb in the pair emphasizing that she wasted no time.
37tn Heb "sent by the hand of his friend."
38tn Heb "to receive the pledge from the woman's hand."
39tn Heb "he"; the referent (Judah's friend the Adullamite) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
40tn Heb "the men of her place," that is, who lived at the place where she had been.
41sn The Hebrew noun translated "cult prostitute" is derived from a verb meaning "to be set apart; to be distinct." Thus the term refers to a woman who did not marry, but was dedicated to temple service as a cult prostitute. The masculine form of this noun is used for male cult prostitutes. Judah thought he had gone to an ordinary prostitute (v. 15); but Hirah went looking for a cult prostitute, perhaps because it had been a sheep-shearing festival. For further discussion see E. M. Yamauchi, "Cultic Prostitution," in Orient and Occident: Essays Presented to Cyrus Gordon, AOAT 22 (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1973) 213-23.
42tn The words "the things" have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
43tn Heb "we will become contemptible." The Hebrew word zWB (BWz) describes the contempt that a respectable person would have for someone who is worthless, foolish, or disreputable.
44tn Heb "it was told to Judah, saying."
45tn Or "has been sexually promiscuous." The verb may refer here to loose or promiscuous activity, not necessarily prostitution.
46tn Heb "and also look, she is with child by prostitution."
47tn Heb "she was being brought out and she sent." The juxtaposition of two clauses, both of which place the subject before the predicate, indicates synchronic action.
48tn Heb "who these to him."
49tn Or " recognize; note." This same Hebrew verb (rk^n` [n`k^r]) is used at the beginning of v. 26, where it is translated "recognized."
50sn She is more upright than I. Judah had been irresponsible and unfaithful to his duty to see that the family line continued through the levirate marriage of his son Shelah. Tamar fought for her right to be the mother of Judah's line. When she was not given Shelah and Judah's wife died, she took action on her own to ensure that the line did not die out. Though deceptive, it was a desperate and courageous act. For Tamar it was within her rights; she did nothing that the law did not entitle her to do. But for Judah it was wrong because he thought he was going to a prostitute. See also Susan Niditch, "The Wronged Woman Righted: An Analysis of Genesis 38," HTR 72 (1979): 143-48.
51tn Heb "and he did not add again to know her." Here "know" is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
52tn The word "child" has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
53tn Heb "Look, his brother came out." By the use of the particle hN}h! (h!N@h, "look"), the narrator invites the reader to view the scene through the midwife's eyes. The words "before him" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
54tn Heb "How you have made a breach for yourself!" The Hebrew verb translated "make a breach" frequently occurs, as here, with a cognate accusative. The event provided the meaningful name Perez, "he who breaks through."
55sn The name Perez means "he who breaks through," referring to Perez reaching out his hand at birth before his brother was born. The naming signified the completion of Tamar's struggle and also depicted the destiny of the tribe of Perez who later became dominant (Gen 46:12 and Num 26:20). Judah and his brothers had sold Joseph into slavery, thinking they could thwart God's plan that the elder brothers should serve the younger. God demonstrated that principle through these births in Judah's own family, affirming that the elder will serve the younger, and that Joseph's leadership could not so easily be set aside. See J. Goldin, "The Youngest Son; or, Where Does Genesis 38 Belong?" JBL 96 (1977): 27-44.
56sn Perhaps the child was named Zerah because of the scarlet thread. Though the Hebrew word used for "scarlet thread" in v. 28 is not related to the name Zerah, there is a related root in Babylonian and western Aramaic that means "scarlet" or "scarlet thread." In Hebrew the name appears to be derived from a root meaning "to shine." The name could have originally meant something like "shining one" or "God has shined." Zerah became the head of a tribe (Num 26:20) from whom Achan descended (Josh 7:1).

41:50 Two sons were born to Joseph before the famine came.97 Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, was their mother.98 41:51 Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh,99 saying,100 "Certainly101 God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father's house." 41:52 He named the second child Ephraim,102 saying,103 "Certainly104 God has made me fruitful in the land of my suffering." 

97tn Heb "before the year of the famine came."
98tn Heb "gave birth for him."
99sn The name Manasseh (m=n~V#h [hV#n~m=]) describes God's activity on behalf of Joseph, explaining in general the significance of his change of fortune. The name is a Piel participle, suggesting the meaning "he who brings about forgetfulness." The Hebrew verb n~V^n] (yn]V^n~)! may have been used instead of the normal n]V^n] (yn]V^n]) to provide a closer soundplay with the name. The giving of this Hebrew name to his son shows that Joseph retained his heritage and faith; and it shows that a brighter future was in store for him.
100tn The word "saying" has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
101tn Or "for."
102sn The name Ephraim (a#pr^y]< [<y]r~p=a#]), a form of the Hebrew verb P*r*h (hrP), means "to bear fruit." The theme of fruitfulness is connected with this line of the family from Rachel on down (see Gen 49:22, Deut 33:13-17, and Hos 13:15). But there is some difficulty with the name "Ephraim" itself. It appears to be a dual, for which Delitzsch simply said it meant "double fruitfulness" (A New Commentary on Genesis, 2:305). G. J. Spurrell suggested it was a diphthongal pronunciation of a name ending in -an or -am, often thought to be dual suffixes (see Diblayim in Hos 1:3; Notes on Genesis, 334). Many, however, simply connect the name to the territory of Ephraim and interpret it to be "fertile land" (C. Fontinoy, "Les noms de lieux en -ayim dans la Bible, UF 3 [1971]: 33-40). The dual would then be an old locative ending. There is no doubt that the name became attached to the land in which the tribe settled, and it is possible that is where the dual ending came from, but in this story it refers to Joseph's God-given fruitfulness.
103tn The word "saying" has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
104tn Or "for."
105tn Heb "began to arrive."

The Family of Jacob goes to Egypt

46:1 So Israel began his journey, taking with him all that he had.1 When he came to Beersheba2 he offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac. 46:2 God spoke to Israel in a vision during the night3 and said, "Jacob, Jacob!" He replied, "Here I am!" 46:3 He said, "I am God,4 the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will make you into a great nation there. 46:4 I will go down with you to Egypt and I myself will certainly bring you back from there.5 Joseph will close your eyes."6

46:5 Then Jacob started out7 from Beersheba, and the sons of Israel carried their father Jacob, their little children, and their wives in the wagons that Pharaoh had sent along to transport him. 46:6 Jacob and all his descendents took their livestock and the possessions they had acquired in the land of Canaan, and they went to Egypt.8 46:7 He brought with him to Egypt his sons and grandsons,9 his daughters and granddaughters-all his descendants.

46:8 These are the names of the sons of Israel who went to Egypt-Jacob and his sons:
Reuben, the firstborn of Jacob.
46:9 The sons of Reuben:
Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
46:10 The sons of Simeon:
Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar,
and Shaul (the son of a Canaanite woman).
46:11 The sons of Levi:
Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
46:12 The sons of Judah:
Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah
(but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan).
The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.
46:13 The sons of Issachar:
Tola, Puah,10 Jashub,11 and Shimron.
46:14 The sons of Zebulun:
Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.
46:15 These were the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, along with Dinah his daughter. His sons and daughters numbered thirty-three in all.12
46:16 The sons of Gad:
Zephon,13 Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.
46:17 The sons of Asher:
Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and Serah their sister.
The sons of Beriah were Heber and Malkiel.
46:18 These were the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter. She bore these to Jacob, sixteen in all.
46:19 The sons of Rachel the wife of Jacob:
Joseph and Benjamin.
46:20 Manasseh and Ephraim were born to Joseph in the land of Egypt. Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On,14 bore them to him.
46:21 The sons of Benjamin:15
Bela, Beker, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim and Ard.
46:22 These were the sons of Rachel who were born to Jacob, fourteen in all.
46:23 The son of Dan: Hushim.16
46:24 The sons of Naphtali:
Jahziel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.
46:25 These were the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to Rachel his daughter. She bore these to Jacob, seven in all.

46:26 All the direct descendents of Jacob who went to Egypt with him were sixty-six in number. (This number does not include the wives of Jacob's sons.)17 46:27 Counting the two sons18 of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt, all the people of the household of Jacob who were in Egypt numbered seventy.19

1tn Heb "and Israel journeyed, and all that was his."
2sn Beersheba. See Gen 21:31; 28:10.
3tn Heb "in visions of the night." The plural form has the singular meaning, probably as a plural of intensity.
4tn Heb "the God."
5tn Heb "and I, I will bring you up, also bringing up." The independent personal pronoun before the first person imperfect verbal form draws attention to the speaker/subject, while the infinitive absolute after the imperfect strongly emphasizes the statement: "I myself will certainly bring you up."
6tn Heb "and Joseph will put his hand upon your eyes." This is a promise of peaceful death in Egypt with Joseph present to close his eyes.
7tn Heb "arose."
8tn Heb "and they took their livestock and their possessions which they had acquired in the land of Canaan and they went to Egypt, Jacob and all his offspring with him." The order of the clauses has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.
9tn The Hebrew text adds "with him" here. This is omitted in the translation because it is redundant in English style (note the same phrase earlier in the verse).
10tc The MT reads "Puvah" (cf. Num 26:23); the Samaritan Pentateuch and Syriac read "Puah" (cf. 1 Chr 7:1).
11tc The MT reads "Iob," but the Samaritan Pentateuch and some LXX mss read "Jashub" (see Num 26:24; 1 Chr 7:1).
12tn Heb "all the lives of his sons and his daughters, thirty-three."
13tc The MT reads "Ziphion," but see Num 26:15, the Samaritan Pentateuch and the LXX, all of which read "Zephon."
14sn On is another name for the city of Heliopolis.
15sn The sons of Benjamin. It is questionable whether youthful Benjamin had ten sons by the time he went into Egypt, but it is not impossible. If Benjamin was born when Joseph was six or seven, he was ten when Joseph was sold into Egypt, and would have been thirty-two at this point. Some suggest that the list originally served another purpose and included the names of all who were in the immediate family of the sons, whether born in Canaan or later in Egypt.
16tn This name appears as "Shuham" in Num 26:42. The LXX reads "Hashum" here.
17tn Heb "All the people who went with Jacob to Egypt, the ones who came out of his body, apart from the wives of the sons of Jacob, all the people were sixty-six."
sn The number sixty-six includes the seventy-one descendents (including Dinah) listed in vv. 8-25 minus Er and Onan (deceased), and Joseph, Manasseh, and Ephraim (already in Egypt).
18tn The LXX reads "nine sons," probably counting the grandsons of Joseph born to Ephraim and Manasseh (cf. 1 Chr 7:14-20).
19tn Heb "And the sons of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt were two people; all the people belonging to the house of Jacob who came to Egypt were seventy."


48:1 After these things Joseph was told,1 "Your father is weakening." So he took his two sons Manasseh and Ephraim with him. 48:2 When Jacob was told,2 "Your son Joseph has just3 come to you," Israel regained strength and sat up on his bed.

1tn Heb "and one said." With no expressed subject in the Hebrew text, the verb can be translated with the passive voice.
2tn Heb "and one told and said." The verbs have no expressed subject and can be translated with the passive voice.
3tn Heb "Look, your son Joseph."
37. Genesis 49:

The Blessing of Jacob


49:1 Jacob called for his sons and said, "Gather together so I can tell you1 what will happen to you in the future.2
49:2 "Assemble and listen, you sons of Jacob;
listen to Israel, your father.
49:3 Reuben, you are my firstborn,
my might and the beginning of my strength,
outstanding in dignity, outstanding in power.
49:4 You are destructive3 like water and will not excel,4
for you got on your father's bed,5
then you defiled it-he got on my couch!6
49:5 Simeon and Levi are brothers,
weapons of violence are their knives.7
49:6 O my soul, do not come into their council,
do not be united to their assembly, my heart,8
for in their anger they have killed men,
and for pleasure they have hamstrung oxen.
49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce,
and their fury, for it was cruel.
I will divide them in Jacob,
and scatter them in Israel.9
49:8 Judah,10 your brothers will praise you.
your hand will be on the neck of your enemies,
your father's sons will bow down before you.
49:9 You are a lion's cub, Judah,
from the prey, my son, you have gone up.
He crouches and lies down like a lion;
like a lioness-who will rouse him?
49:10 The scepter will not depart from Judah,
nor the ruler's staff from between his feet,11
until he comes to whom it belongs;12
the nations will obey him.13
49:11 Binding his foal to the vine,
and his colt to the choicest vine,
he will wash14 his garments in wine,
his robes in the blood of grapes.
49:12 His eyes will be dark from wine,
and his teeth white from milk.15
49:13 Zebulun will live16 by the haven of the sea
and become a haven for ships;
his border will extend to Sidon.
49:14 Issachar is a strong-boned donkey
lying down between two saddlebags.
49:15 When he sees17 a good resting place,
and the pleasant land,
he will bend his shoulder to the burden
and become a slave laborer.18
49:16 Dan19 will judge20 his people
as one of the tribes of Israel.
49:17 May Dan be a snake beside the road,
a viper by the path,
that bites the heels of the horse
so that its rider falls backward.21
49:18 I wait for your deliverance, O Lord.22
49:19 Gad will be raided by marauding bands,
but he will attack them at their heels.23
49:20 Asher's24 food will be rich,25
and he will provide delicacies26 to royalty.
49:21 Naphtali is a free running doe,27
he speaks delightful words.28
49:22 Joseph is a fruitful bough,29
a fruitful bough near a spring
whose branches30 climb over the wall.
49:23 The archers will attack him,31
they will shoot at him and oppose him.
49:24 But his bow will remain steady,
and his hands32 will be skillful;
because of the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob,
because of33 the Shepherd, the Rock34 of Israel,
49:25 because of the God of your father,
who will help you,35
because of the Sovereign God,36
who will bless you37
with blessings from the sky above,
blessings from the deep that lies below,
and blessings of the breasts and womb.38
49:26 The blessings of your father are greater
than39 the blessings of the eternal mountains40
or the desirable things of the age-old hills.
They will be on the head of Joseph
and on the brow of the prince of his brothers.41
49:27 Benjamin is a ravenous wolf;
in the morning devouring the prey,
and in the evening dividing the plunder.

49:28 These42 are the twelve tribes of Israel. This is what their father said to them when he blessed them. He gave each of them an appropriate blessing.43

49:29 Then he instructed them,44 "I am about to go45 to my people. Bury me with my fathers in the cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite. 49:30 It is the cave in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought for a burial plot from Ephron the Hittite. 49:31 There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah; there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah; and there I buried Leah. 49:32 The field and the cave in it were acquired from the sons of Heth."46

49:33 When Jacob finished giving these instructions to his sons, he pulled his feet up onto the bed, breathed his last breath and went47 to his people.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1tn After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav indicates purpose/result.
2tn The expression "in the future" (<ym!Y`h^ tyr]j&a^ [a^h&r!t h^y`m!<], "in the end of days") is found most frequently in prophetic passages; it may refer to the end of the age, the eschaton, or to the distant future. The contents of some of the sayings in this chapter stretch from the immediate circumstances to the time of the settlement in the land to the coming of Messiah. There is a great deal of literature on this chapter, including among others C. Armerding, "The Last Words of Jacob: Genesis 49," BSac 112 (1955): 320-28; H. Pehlke, "An Exegetical and Theological Study of Genesis 49:1-28," unpublished Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1985; and B. Vawter, "The Canaanite Background of Genesis 49," CBQ 17 (1955): 1-18.
3tn The Hebrew noun zj^P^ (P^j^z) only occurs here in the OT. A related verb occurs twice in the prophets (Jer 23:32; Zeph 3:4) for false prophets inventing their messages, and once in Judges for unscrupulous men bribed to murder (Judg 9:4). It would describe Reuben as being "frothy, boiling, turbulent" as water. The LXX has "run riot;" the Vulgate has "poured out;" and Targum Onqelos has "you followed your own direction." It is a reference to Reuben's misconduct in Gen 35, but the simile and the rare word invite some speculation. Pehlke suggests "destructive like water," for Reuben acted with pride and presumption.
4tn Heb "Do not excel!" The Hiphil of the verb rt^y` (y`t^r) has this meaning only here. The negated jussive is rhetorical here. Rather than being a command, it anticipates what will transpire. The prophecy says that because of the character of the ancestor, the tribe of Reuben would not have the character to lead (see 1 Chr 5:1).
5sn This is a euphemism for having sexual intercourse with Jacob's wives (see Gen 35:22).
6tn The last verb is third masculine singular, as if for the first time Jacob told the brothers, or let them know that he knew. For a discussion of this passage see S. Gevirtz, "The Reprimand of Reuben," JNES 30 (1971): 87-98.
7tn The meaning of the Hebrew word hr`k@m= (m=k@r*h) is uncertain. It has been rendered (1) "habitations"; (2) "merchandise"; (3) "counsels"; (4) "swords"; (5) "wedding feasts." If it is from the verb trK (K*r^t) and formed after noun patterns for instruments and tools (maqtil, miqtil form), then it would refer to "knives." Since the verb is used in Exod 4:25 for circumcision, the idea would be "their circumcision knives," an allusion to the events of Gen 34 (see M. J. Dahood, "'MKRTYHM' in Genesis 49,5," CBQ 23 [1961]: 54-56). Another explanation also connects the word to the events of Gen 34 as a reference to the intended "wedding feast" for Dinah which could take place only after the men of Shechem were circumcised (see D. W. Young, "A Ghost Word in the Testament of Jacob (Gen 49:5)?" JBL 100 [1981]: 335-422).
8tn The Hebrew text reads "my glory," but it is preferable to repoint the form and read "my liver." The liver was sometimes viewed as the seat of the emotions and will (see HALOT 456) for which the heart is the modern equivalent.
9sn Divide...scatter. What is predicted here is a division of their tribes. Most commentators see here an anticipation of Levi being in every area but not their own. That may be part of it, but not entirely what the curse intended. These tribes for their ruthless cruelty would be eliminated from the power and prestige of leadership.
10sn There is a wordplay here; the name Judah (y+hWd*h [hd`Why+]) sounds in Hebrew like the verb translated praise (yodW; [;Wdoy]). The wordplay serves to draw attention to the statement as having special significance.
11tn Or perhaps "from his descendants," taking the expression "from between his feet" as a euphemism referring to the genitals. In this case the phrase refers by metonymy to those who come forth from his genitals, i.e., his descendants.
12tn The Hebrew form hOyv! is a major interpretive problem. There are at least four major options (with many variations and less likely alternatives): (1) Some prefer to leave the text as it is, reading "Shiloh" and understanding it as the place where the ark rested for a while in the time of the Judges (see D. E. Schley, Shiloh, JSOTSup 63 [Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989]). (2) By repointing the text others arrive at the translation "until the [or, "his"] ruler comes," a reference to a Davidic ruler or the Messiah. (3) Another possibility that does not require emendation of the consonantal text, but only repointing, is "until tribute is brought to him" (so NEB, JPS, NRSV), which has the advantage of providing good parallelism with the following line, "the nations will obey him." (4) The interpretation followed in the present translation, "to whom it [belongs]" (so RSV, NIV, REB), is based on the ancient versions. Again, this would refer to the Davidic dynasty or, ultimately, to the Messiah.
13tn "and to him [will be] the obedience of the nations." For discussion of this verse see J. Blenkinsopp, "The Oracle of Judah and the Messianic Entry," JBL 80 (1961): 55-64; and E. M. Good, "The 'Blessing' on Judah," JBL 82 (1963): 427-32.
14tn The perfect verbal form is used rhetorically, describing coming events as though they have already taken place.
15tn Some translate these as comparatives, "darker than wine...whiter than milk," and so a reference to his appearance (so NEB, NIV, NRSV). But if it is in the age of abundance, symbolized by wine and milk, then the dark (i.e., red or perhaps dull) eyes would be from drinking wine, and the white teeth from drinking milk.
16tn The verb /k^v* (v*k^/) means "to settle," but not necessarily as a permanent dwelling place. The tribal settlements by the sea would have been temporary and not the tribe's territory.
17tn The verb forms in this verse ("sees," "will bend," and "[will] become") are preterite; they is used in a rhetorical manner, describing the future as if it had already transpired.
18sn The oracle shows that the tribe of Issachar will be willing to trade liberty for the material things of life. Issachar would work (become a slave laborer) for the Canaanites, a reversal of the oracle on Canaan. See C. M. Carmichael, "Some Sayings in Genesis 49," JBL 88 (1969): 435-44; and S. Gevirtz, "The Issachar Oracle in the Testament of Jacob," ErIsr 12 (1975): 104-112.
19sn The name Dan means "judge" and forms a wordplay with the following verb.
20tn Or "govern."
21sn The comparison of the tribe of Dan to a venomous serpent is meant to say that Dan, though small, would be potent, gaining victory through its skill and shrewdness. Jewish commentators have linked the image in part with Samson. That link at least illustrates the point: though a minority tribe, Dan would gain the upper hand over others.
22sn I wait for your deliverance, O Lord. As Jacob sees the conflicts that lie ahead for Dan and Gad (see v. 19), he offers a brief prayer for their security.
23tc Heb "heel." The MT has suffered from misdivision at this point. The initial mem on the first word in the next verse should probably be taken as a plural ending on the word "heel."

sn In Hebrew the name Gad (G`d [dG`]) sounds like the words translated "raided" (y+gWd#NW [WNd\Wgy+]) and "marauding bands" (G+dWd [dWdG+]).
24tc Heb "from Asher," but the initial mem of the MT should probably be moved to the end of the preceding verse and taken as a plural ending on "heel."
25tn The Hebrew word translated "rich," when applied to products of the ground, means abundant in quantity and quality.
26tn The word translated "delicacies" refers to foods that were delightful, the kind fit for a king.
27tn Heb "a doe set free."
28tn Heb "the one who gives words of beauty." The deer imagery probably does not continue into this line; Naphtali is the likely antecedent of the substantival participle, which is masculine, not feminine, in form. If the animal imagery is retained from the preceding line, the image of a talking deer is preposterous. For this reason some read the second line "the one who bears beautiful fawns," interpreting yr}m=a! (a!mr@) as a reference to young animals, not words (see HALOT 67).

sn Almost every word in the verse is difficult. Some take the imagery to mean that Naphtali will be swift and agile (like a doe), and be used to take good messages (reading "words of beauty"). Others argue that the tribe was free-spirited (free running), but then settled down with young children.
29tn The Hebrew text appears to mean "[is] a son of fruitfulness." The second word is an active participle, feminine singular, from the verb hr`P* (P*r*h, "to be fruitful"). The translation "bough" is employed for /B@ (B@/, elsewhere typically "son") because Joseph is pictured as a healthy and fruitful vine growing by the wall. But there are difficulties with this interpretation. The word "son" nowhere else refers to a plant and the noun translated "branches" (Heb "daughters") in the third line is a plural form whereas its verb is singular. In the other oracles of Gen 49 an animal is used for comparison and not a plant, leading some to translate the opening phrase hrP /B ("fruitful bough") as "wild donkey" (JPS, NAB). Various other interpretations involving more radical emendation of the text have also been offered.
30tn Heb "daughters."
31tn The verb forms in vv. 23-24 are used in a rhetorical manner, describing future events as if they had already taken place.
32tn Heb "the arms of his hands."
33tn Heb "from there," but the phrase should be revocalized and read "from [i.e. because of] the name of."
34tn Or "Stone."
35tn Heb "and he will help you."
36tn Heb "Shaddai." See the note on the title "Sovereign God" in Gen 17:1. The preposition ta@ (a@t) in the Hebrew text should probably be emended to la@ (a@l), "God."
37tn Heb "and he will bless you."
38sn Jacob envisions God imparting both agricultural (blessings from the sky above, blessings from the deep that lies below) and human fertility (blessings of the breasts and womb) to Joseph and his family.
39tn Heb "have prevailed over."
40tn One could interpret the phrase yr~oh (hor^y) to mean "my progenitors" (literally, "the ones who conceived me"), but the masculine form argues against this. It is better to emend the text to yr}r&h^ (h^r&r@y, "mountains of") because it forms a better parallel with the next clause. In this case the final yod on the form is a construct plural marker, not a pronominal suffix.
41tn For further discussion of this passage, see I. Sonne, "Genesis 49:24-26," JBL 65 (1946): 303-306.
42tn Heb "All these."
43tn Heb "and he blessed them, each of whom according to his blessing, he blessed them."
44tn The Hebrew text adds "and he said to them," which is not included in the translation because it is redundant in English.
45tn Heb "I am about to be gathered" The participle is used here to describe what is imminent.
46tn Some translate the Hebrew term "Heth" as "Hittites" here (see also Gen 23:3), but this gives the impression that these people were the classical Hittites of Anatolia. However, there is no known connection between these sons of Heth, apparently a Canaanite group (see Gen 10:15), and the Hittites of Asia Minor. See H. A. Hoffner, Jr., "Hittites," in Peoples of the Old Testament World (ed. A. J. Hoerth, G. L. Mattingly, and E. M. Yamauchi; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996) 152-53.
47tn Heb "was gathered."

50:22 Joseph lived in Egypt, along with his father's family.28 Joseph lived one hundred and ten years. 50:23 Joseph saw the descendants of Ephraim to the third generation.29 He also saw the children of Makir the son of Manasseh; they were given special inheritance rights by Joseph.30

28tn Heb "he and the house of his father."
29tn Heb "saw Ephraim, the children of the third."
30tn Heb "they were born on the knees of Joseph." This expression implies their adoption by Joseph, which meant that they received an inheritance from him.
38. Exodus 1:

Blessing during the Bondage in Egypt


1:11 These2 are the names3 of the sons of Israel4 who entered Egypt-each man with his household5 entered with Jacob: 1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 1:3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 1:4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 1:5 All the people6 who were directly descended7 from Jacob numbered seventy8 (Joseph was already in Egypt).9 1:6 In time10 Joseph11 and his brothers and all that generation died. 1:7 But12 the Israelites13 were fruitful, increased abundantly, multiplied, and became exceedingly strong,14 so that the land was filled with them.

1sn Chapter 1 introduces the theme of bondage in Egypt and shows the intensifying opposition to the fulfillment of promises given earlier to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The first seven verses announce the theme of Israel's prosperity in Egypt. The second section (vv. 8-14) reports continued prosperity in the face of deliberate opposition. And the third section (vv. 15-21) explains the prosperity as divine favor in spite of Pharaoh's covert attempts at controlling the population. The final verse forms a culmination in the developing tyranny and a transition to the next section-Pharaoh commands the open murder of the males. The reader should note the power of God revealed in the chapter as the people flourish under the forces of evil. However, by the turn of affairs at the end of the chapter, the reader is left with a question about the power of God- "What can God do?" This is good Hebrew narrative, moving the reader through tension after tension to reveal the sovereign power and majesty of the Lord God, but calling for faith every step of the way. See also D. W. Wicke, "The Literary Structure of Exodus 1:2-2:10," JSOT 24 (1982): 99-107
2tn Heb "now these" or "and these." The vav disjunctive here marks a new beginning in the narrative begun in Genesis. The fact that the Book of Genesis forms an introduction to the Book of Exodus is established more by their contents than by this use of the vav, whose force is conveyed by the break between the two books.
3sn The name of the Book of Exodus in the Hebrew Bible is tomv= (semot), the word for "Names," drawn from the beginning of the book. The inclusion of the names at this point forms a literary connection to the Book of Genesis. It indicates that the Israelites living in bondage had retained a knowledge of their ancestry, and with it, a knowledge of God's promise.
4tn The Hebrew expression la@r*c=y] yn}B= (bene Yisra'el) in most places refers to the nation and can be translated "Israelites," although traditionally it has been rendered "the children of Israel" or "the sons of Israel." Here it refers primarily to the individual sons of the patriarch Israel, for they are named. But the expression is probably also intended to indicate that they are the Israelites.
5tn Heb "a man and his house." Since this serves to explain "the sons of Israel," it has the distributive sense. So while the "sons of Israel" refers to the actual sons of the patriarch, the expression includes their families.
6tn The Hebrew text uses vp#n\ (nepesh), which is often translated "soul." But the word refers to the whole person, the body with the soul, and so "life" or "person" would be a better translation; here: "all the people" or "the lives."
7tn The expression in apposition to vp#n\ literally says "those who went out from the loins of Jacob." This distinguishes the entire company as his direct descendants.
8sn The Greek text and the Dead Sea Scrolls have the number as seventy-five, counting the people a little differently. E. H. Merrill makes the following observation in conjunction with F. Delitzsch, namely, that the fact that the list in Gen 46 enumerates all the people who entered Egypt, including those like Hezron and Hamul who did so in potentia, since they were born after the family entered Egypt (F. Delitzsch, Genesis, 2:340), and the fact that Joseph's sons are included in the list of those entering Egypt, though they were also born there, shows that the list should not be pressed too literally (E. H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 49).
9tn Heb "and Joseph was in Egypt."
10tn The text simply uses the vav consecutive with the preterite, "and Joseph died." While this construction shows sequence with the preceding verse, it does not require that the death follow directly the report of that verse. In fact, we know from the record in Genesis that the death of Joseph occurred after a good number of years. The interpretation of the vav is therefore warranted; the verse indicates the passage of time in the natural course of events.
11tn The verse literally reads, "and Joseph died, and all his brothers, and all that generation." But typical of Hebrew style the verb need only agree with the first of a compound subject.
sn Since the death of Joseph and his brothers and all that generation was common knowledge, its inclusion must serve some rhetorical purpose. In contrast to the theme of the chapter, the flourishing of Israel, there is death. This theme will appear again: in spite of death in Egypt, the nation flourishes.
12tn The disjunctive vav marks a contrast with the note about the deaths of the first generation.
13tn Heb "the children/sons of Israel."
14sn The text is clearly going out of its way to say that the people of Israel flourished in Egypt. The verbs hrP (para), "be fruitful," Jrv (saras), "swarm, teem," hbr (raba), "multiply," and <xu ('asam), "be strong, mighty," form a literary link to the creation account in Genesis. The text describes Israel's prosperity in the terms of God's original command to be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth, to show that their prosperity was by divine blessing and in compliance with the will of God. The commission for the creation to fill the earth and subdue it would now begin to materialize through the seed of Abraham.
tn Using da)m= (me'od) twice intensifies the idea of their becoming strong (see GKC §133.k).
39. 30:4 So Rachel10 gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob had marital relations with11 her. 30:5 Bilhah became pregnant12 and gave Jacob a son.13 30:6 Then Rachel said, "God has vindicated me. He has responded to my prayer14 and given me a son." That is why15 she named him Dan.16

30:7 Bilhah, Rachel's servant, became pregnant again and gave Jacob another son.17 30:8 Then Rachel said, "I have fought a desperate struggle with my sister, but I have won."18 So she named him Naphtali.19

30:9 When Leah saw that she had stopped having children, she gave20 her servant Zilpah to Jacob as a wife. 30:10 Soon Leah's servant Zilpah gave Jacob a son.21 30:11 Leah said, "How fortunate!"22 So she named him Gad.23

30:12 Then Leah's servant Zilpah gave Jacob another son.24 30:13 Leah said, "How happy I am,25 for women26 will call me happy! So she named him Asher.27

30:17 God paid attention36 to Leah; she became pregnant37 and gave Jacob a son for the fifth time.38 30:18 Then Leah said, "God has granted me a reward,39 because I gave my servant to my husband as a wife."40 So she named him Issachar.41

30:19 Leah became pregnant again and gave Jacob a son for the sixth time.42 30:20 Then Leah said, "God has given me a good gift. Now my husband will honor me, because I have given him six sons." So she named him Zebulun.43

30:21 After that she gave birth to a daughter and named her Dinah.

30:22 Then God took note of44 Rachel. He paid attention to her and enabled her to become pregnant.45 30:23 She became pregnant46 and gave birth to a son. Then she said, "God has taken away my shame."47 30:24 She named him Joseph,48 saying, "May the Lord give me yet another son."

10tn Heb "and she"; the referent (Rachel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
11tn Heb "went in to." The expression "went in to" in this context refers to sexual intercourse.
12tn Or "Bilhah conceived" (also in v. 7).
13tn Heb "and she bore for Jacob a son."
14tn Heb "and also he has heard my voice." The expression means that God responded positively to Rachel's cry and granted her request.
15tn Or "therefore."
16sn The name Dan means "he vindicated" or "he judged." The name plays on the verb used in the statement which appears earlier in the verse. The verb translated "vindicated" is from D!/ (/yD]), "to judge; to vindicate," the same verbal root from which the name is derived. Rachel sensed that God was righting the wrong.
17tn Heb "and she became pregnant again and Bilhah, the servant of Rachel, bore a second son for Jacob."
18tn Heb "[with] a mighty struggle I have struggled with my sister, also I have prevailed." The phrase "mighty struggle" reads literally "struggles of God." The plural participle "struggles" reflects the ongoing nature of the struggle, while the divine name is used here idiomatically to emphasize the intensity of the struggle. See Skinner, Genesis, 387.
19sn The name Naphtali must mean something like "my struggle" in view of the statement Rachel made in the preceding clause. The name plays on this earlier statement, "[with] a mighty struggle I have struggled with my sister."
20tn Heb "she took her servant Zilpah and gave her." The verbs "took" and "gave" are treated as a hendiadys in the translation: "she gave."
21tn Heb "and Zilpah, the servant of Leah, bore for Jacob a son."
22tc The statement in the Kethib (consonantal text) appears to mean literally "with good fortune," if one takes the initial bet as a preposition indicating accompaniment. The Qere (marginal reading) means "good fortune has arrived."
23sn The name Gad means "good fortune." The name reflects Leah's feeling that good fortune has come her way, as expressed in her statement recorded earlier in the verse.
24tn Heb "and Zilpah, the servant of Leah, bore a second son for Jacob."
25tn The Hebrew statement apparently means "with my happiness."
26tn Heb "daughters."
27sn The name Asher apparently means "happy one." The name plays on the words used in the statement which appears earlier in the verse. Both the Hebrew noun and verb translated "happy" and "call me happy," respectively, are derived from the same root as the name Asher.
36tn Heb "listened to."
37tn Or "she conceived" (also in v. 19).
38tn Heb "and she bore for Jacob a fifth son," i.e., this was the fifth son that Leah had given Jacob.
39tn Heb "God has given my reward."
40tn The words "as a wife" are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for clarity (cf. v. 9).

sn Leah seems to regard the act of giving her servant Zilpah to her husband as a sacrifice, for which (she believes) God is now rewarding her with the birth of a son.
41sn The name Issachar appears to mean "man of reward" or possibly "there is reward." The name plays on the word used in the statement made earlier in the verse. The Hebrew noun translated "reward" is derived from the same root as the name Issachar. The irony is that Rachel thought the mandrakes would work for her, and she was willing to trade one night for them. But in that one night Leah became pregnant.
42tn Heb "and she bore a sixth son for Jacob," i.e., this was the sixth son that Leah had given Jacob.
43sn The name Zebulun apparently means "honor." The name plays on the verb used in the statement made earlier in the verse. The Hebrew verb translated "will honor" and the name Zebulun derive from the same root.
44tn Heb "remembered."
45tn Heb "and God listened to her and opened up her womb." Since "God" is the subject of the previous clause, the noun has been replaced by the pronoun "he" in the translation for stylistic reasons
46tn Or "conceived."
47tn Heb "my reproach." A "reproach" is a cutting taunt or painful ridicule, but here it probably refers by metonymy to Rachel's barren condition, which was considered shameful in this culture and was the reason why she was the object of taunting and ridicule.
48sn The name Joseph means "may he add." The name expresses Rachel's desire to have an additional son. In Hebrew the name sounds like the verb a*s*[ ([sa), translated "taken away" in the earlier statement made in v. 23. So the name, while reflecting Rachel's hope, was also a reminder that God had removed her shame.

32:3 Jacob sent messengers on ahead4 to his brother Esau in the land of Seir, the region5 of Edom
5tn Heb "field."

35:16 They traveled on from Bethel, and when Ephrath was still some distance away,31 Rachel went into labor32-and her labor was hard. 35:17 When her labor was at its hardest,33 the midwife said to her, "Don't be afraid, for you are having another son."34 35:18 With her dying breath,35 she named him Ben-Oni.36 But his father called him Benjamin instead.37 35:19 So Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).38 35:20 Jacob set up a marker39 over her grave; it is40 the Marker of Rachel's Grave to this day.

35:21 Then Israel traveled on and pitched his tent beyond Migdal Eder.41 35:22 While Israel was living in that land, Reuben had sexual relations with42 Bilhah, his father's concubine, and Israel heard about it.

Jacob had twelve sons:
35:23 The sons of Leah were Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, as well as Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun.
35:24 The sons of Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin.
35:25 The sons of Bilhah, Rachel's servant, were Dan and Naphtali.
35:26 The sons of Zilpah, Leah's servant, were Gad and Asher.

31tn Heb "and there was still a stretch of the land to go to Ephrath."
32tn Normally the verb would be translated "she gave birth," but because that obviously had not happened yet, it is better to translate the verb as ingressive, "began to give birth" (cf. NIV) or "went into labor."
33tn The construction uses a Hiphil infinitive, which Speiser classifies as an elative Hiphil. The contrast is with the previous Piel: there "she had hard labor," and here, "her labor was at its hardest." Failure to see this, Speiser notes, has led to redundant translations and misunderstandings (E. A. Speiser, Genesis, 273).
34sn Another son. The episode recalls and fulfills the prayer of Rachel at the birth of Joseph (Gen 30:24): "may he add" another son.
35tn Heb "in the going out of her life, for she was dying." Rachel named the child with her dying breath.
36sn The name Ben-Oni means "son of my suffering." It is ironic that Rachel's words to Jacob in Gen 30:1, "Give me children or I'll die," take a different turn here, for it was having the child that brought about her death.
37tn The disjunctive clause is contrastive.

sn His father called him Benjamin. There was a preference for giving children good or positive names in the ancient world, and "son of my suffering" would not do (see the incident in 1 Chr 4:9-10), because it would be a reminder of the death of Rachel (in this connection, see also D. Daube, "The Night of Death," HTR 61 [1968]: 629-32). So Jacob named him Benjamin, which means "son of the [or, "my"] right hand." The name Benjamin appears in the Mari texts. There have been attempts to connect this name to the resident tribe listed at Mari, "sons of the south" (since the term "right hand" can also mean "south" in Hebrew), but this assumes a different reading of the story. See J. Muilenberg, "The Birth of Benjamin," JBL 75 (1956): 194-201.
38sn This explanatory note links the earlier name Ephrath with the later name Bethlehem.
39tn Heb "standing stone."
40tn Or perhaps "it is known as" (cf. NEB).
41sn The location of Migdal Eder is not given. It appears to be somewhere between Bethlehem and Hebron. Various traditions have identified it as at the shepherds' fields near Bethlehem (the Hebrew name Migdal Eder means "tower of the flock"; see Mic 4:8) or located it near Solomon's pools.
42tn Heb "and Reuben went and lay with." The expression "lay with" is a euphemism for having sexual intercourse.
sn Reuben's act of having sexual relations with Bilhah probably had other purposes than merely satisfying his sexual desire. By having sex with Bilhah, Reuben (Leah's oldest son) would have prevented Bilhah from succeeding Rachel as the favorite wife and by sleeping with his father's concubine he would also be attempting to take over leadership of the clan-something Absalom foolishly attempted later on in Israel's history (2 Sam 16:21-22).
40. The Sons of Ishmael

25:12
This is the account of Abraham's son Ishmael,14 whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's servant, bore to Abraham.

25:13 These are the names of Ishmael's sons, by their names according to their records:15 Nebaioth (Ishmael's firstborn), Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 25:14 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, 25:15 Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. 25:16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names by their settlements and their camps-twelve princes16 according to their clans.

25:17 Ishmael lived a total of17 one hundred and thirty-seven years. He breathed his last and died; then he joined his ancestors.18 25:18 His descendants19 settled from Havilah to Shur, which runs next20 to Egypt all the way21 to Asshur.22 They settled23 away from all their relatives.24

25:20 When Isaac was forty years old, he married Rebekah,26 the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean from Paddan Aram and sister of Laban the Aramean.27

25:24 When the time came for Rebekah to give birth,33 there were34 twins in her womb. 25:25 The first came out reddish35 all over,36 like a hairy37 garment, so they named him Esau.38 25:26 When his brother came out with39 his hand clutching Esau's heel, they named him Jacob.40 Isaac was sixty years old41 when they were born.

1tn Or "took."
sn Abraham had taken another wife. These events are not necessarily in chronological order following the events of the preceding chapter. They are listed here to summarize Abraham's other descendants before the narrative of his death.
2tn Heb "And Abraham added and took."
3sn The names Sheba and Dedan appear in Gen 10:7 as descendants of Ham through Cush and Raamah. Since these two names are usually interpreted to be place names, one plausible suggestion is that some of Abraham's descendants lived in those regions and took names linked with it.
4tn Or "sons."
14sn This is the account of Ishmael. The Book of Genesis tends to tidy up the family records at every turning point. Here, before proceeding with the story of Isaac's family, the narrative traces Ishmael's family line. Later, before discussing Jacob's family, the narrative traces Esau's family line (see Gen 36).
15tn The meaning of this line is not easily understood. The sons of Ishmael are listed here "by their names" and "according to their descendants."
16tn Or "tribal chieftains."
17tn Heb "And these are the days of the years of Ishmael."
18tn Heb "And he was gathered to his people." In the ancient Israelite view he joined his deceased ancestors in Sheol, the land of the dead.
19tn Heb "they"; the referent (Ishmael's descendants) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
20tn Heb "which is by the face of," or near the border. The territory ran along the border of Egypt.
21tn Heb "as you go."
22sn The name Asshur refers here to a tribal area in the Sinai.
23tn Heb "he fell."
24tn Heb "upon the face of all his brothers." This last expression, obviously alluding to the earlier oracle about Ishmael (Gen 16:12), could mean that the descendants of Ishmael lived in hostility to others or that they lived in a territory that was opposite the lands of their relatives. While there is some ambiguity about the meaning, the line probably does give a hint of the Ishmaelite-Israelite conflicts to come.
26tn Heb "And Isaac was the son of forty years when he took Rebekah."
27sn Some valuable information is provided here. We learn here that Isaac married thirty-five years before Abraham died, that Rebekah was barren for twenty years, and that Abraham would have lived to see Jacob and Esau begin to grow up. The death of Abraham was recorded in the first part of the chapter as a "tidying up" of one generation before beginning the account of the next.
33tn Heb "And her days were filled to give birth."
34tn Heb "look!" By the use of the particle hN}h! (h!N@h, "look"), the narrator invites the audience to view the scene as if they were actually present at the birth.
35sn Reddish. The Hebrew word translated "reddish" is a^dm{n] (yn]omd+a^), which forms a wordplay on the Edomites, Esau's descendants. The writer sees in Esau's appearance at birth a sign of what was to come. After all, the reader has already been made aware of the "nations" that were being born.
36tn Heb "all of him."
37sn Hairy. Here is another wordplay involving the descendants of Esau. The Hebrew word translated "hairy" is c@u*r (ru*c@); the Edomites will later live in Mount Seir, perhaps named for its wooded nature.
38tn Heb "And they called his name Esau." The name "Esau" is not etymologically related to c@u*r (ru*c@), but it draws on some of the sounds.
39tn The disjunctive clause describes an important circumstance accompanying the birth. Whereas Esau was passive at birth, Jacob was active.
40tn Heb "And he called his name Jacob." Some ancient witnesses read "they called his name Jacob" (see v. 25). In either case the subject is indefinite.
sn The name Jacob is a play on the Hebrew word for "heel," u*q@b (bq@u*). The name (since it is a verb) probably means something like "may he protect," that is, as a rearguard, dogging the heels. It did not have a negative connotation until Esau redefined it. This name was probably chosen because of the immediate association with the incident of grabbing the heel. After receiving such an oracle, the parents would have preserved in memory almost every detail of the unusual births.
41tn Heb "the son of sixty years."

26:34 When81 Esau was forty years old,82 he married83 Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, as well as Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite.

81tn The sentence begins with the temporal indicator ("and it happened"), making this clause subordinate to the next.
82tn Heb "the son of forty years."
83tn Heb "took as a wife."
41. 12:4 So Abram left,12 just as the Lord had told him to do,13 and Lot went with him. (Now14 Abram was seventy-five years old15 when he departed from Haran.) 12:5 And Abram took his wife Sarai, his nephew16 Lot, and all the possessions they had accumulated and the people they had acquired17 in Haran, and they left for18 the land of Canaan. They entered the land of Canaan.

12sn So Abram left. This is the report of Abram's obedience to God's command (see v. 1).
13tn Heb "just as the Lord said to him."
14tn The disjunctive clause (note the pattern conjunction + subject + implied "to be" verb) is parenthetical, telling the age of Abram when he left Haran.
15tn Heb "was the son of five years and seventy year[s]."
sn Terah was seventy years old when he became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran (Gen 11:26). Terah was two hundred and five when he died in Haran . Abram left Haran at the age of seventy-five after his father died. Abram was born when Terah was one hundred and thirty. Abram was not the firstborn-he is placed first in the list of three because of his importance. The same is true of the list in Gen 10:1 (Shem, Ham and Japheth). Ham was the youngest son . Japheth was the older brother of Shem , so the birth order of Noah's sons was Japheth, Shem, and Ham.
16tn Heb "the son of his brother."
17tn For the semantic nuance "acquire [property]" for the verb hcu (u*c*h), see BDB 795.
18tn Heb "went out to go."


22:20 After these things Abraham was told, "Milcah47 also has borne children to your brother Nahor- 22:21 Uz the firstborn, his brother Buz, Kemuel (the father of Aram),48 22:22 Kesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel." 22:23 (Now49 Bethuel became the father of Rebekah.) These were the eight sons Milcah bore to Abraham's brother Nahor. 22:24 His concubine, whose name was Reumah, also bore him children-Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah.

47tn In the Hebrew text the sentence begins with hN}h! (h!N@h, "look") which draws attention to the statement.
48sn This parenthetical note about Kemuel's descendant is probably a later insertion by the author/compiler of Genesis and not part of the original announcement.
49tn The disjunctive clause gives information that is important but parenthetical to the narrative. Rebekah would become the wife of Isaac (Gen 24:15).

24:15 Before he had finished praying, there came Rebekah31 with her water jug on her shoulder. She was the daughter of Bethuel son of Milcah (Milcah was the wife of Abraham's brother Nahor).32
24:29 (Now Rebekah had a brother named Laban.)52 Laban rushed out to meet the man at the spring.
24:67 Then Isaac brought Rebekah116 into his mother Sarah's tent. He took her117 as his wife and loved her.118 So Isaac was comforted after his mother's death.119

31tn Heb "Look, Rebekah was coming out!" Using the participle introduced with hN}h! (h!N@h, "look"), the narrator dramatically transports the audience back into the event and invites them to see Rebekah through the servant's eyes.
32tn Heb "Look, Rebekah was coming out-[she] who was born to Bethuel, the son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, the brother of Abraham-and her jug [was] on her shoulder." The order of the clauses has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.
52tn The parenthetical disjunctive clause introduces the audience to Laban, who will eventually play an important role in the unfolding story.
116tn Heb "her"; the referent has been specified here in the translation for clarity.
117tn Heb "Rebekah"; here the proper name was replaced by the pronoun ("her") in the translation for stylistic reasons.
118tn Heb "and he took Rebekah and she became his wife and he loved her."
119tn Heb "after his mother." This must refer to Sarah's death.

25:1 Abraham had taken1 another2 wife, named Keturah. 25:2 She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. 25:3 Jokshan became the father of Sheba and Dedan.3 The descendants of Dedan were the Asshurites, Letushites, and Leummites. 25:4 The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were descendants4 of Keturah.
42. 11:31 Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot (the son of Haran), and his daughter-in-law Sarai, his son Abram's wife, and with them he set out from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to Canaan. When they came to Haran, they settled there. 11:32 The lifetime32 of Terah was two hundred and five years; and he33 died in Haran.

32tn Heb "And the days of Terah were."
33tn Heb "Terah"; the pronoun has been substituted for the proper name in the translation for stylistic reasons.
43. Gaute Losnegård, Berit Gjerland, Rolf Losnegård, Riddarane av Losna, Selja Forlag.
44. Per Nermo, Oslo, Norway, “Welcome to my Nordic Genealogy Site,” http://www.nermo.org/slekt/surnames.html, 29.01.06.
E-mail: nermo@online.no
45. Jacob Aaland, Bygdesoga Innvik, Stryn I, Ny utgåve, Sandane, Solglimt Trykkeri 1973, 1.
46. Jacob Holdt, “Family roots of Jacob Holdt,” http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/genealog.htm, 21. januar 2006.
47. Adolf Førsund - Sigurd Førsund, Bygdebok for Kyrkjebø, Bygdeboknemnda, 1963, Band II Gardssoga.
48. Arnfinn Finne, Miltzow-ætti på Voss, Voss prenteverk. Utgjevi av ei nemnd, Voss 1926.
49. L. H. Torpe, Ættarbok for Kvam, Kvam Herad 1957, Bind II.
50. Geir Kleiveland og Beate Homlong, “Mellom bakkar og berg” Gard og ætt i Meland, Meland kommune 2004, Band I.
51. David Larsen, “FANA FAMILY: Sivert Andersson Hordnes,” 15. november 2003.
NORWEGIAN DEBORA EXPEDITION WEBPAGES: http://www.geocities.com/aldabra.geo
HomePage: http://www.salbu.com
52. Anita Særvold Johannessen, Bergen, 07.03.2004 15:56 (1) Conradus de Lange er gift 9. feb. 1775, Domkirken, Bergen med Hevig Munthe Angel f. ca 1742, g. første gang med Johan von Rechens. C. og H. får i hvert fall 8 barn samme

Johan Erland, Oslo, 08.03.2004 15:22 (2):
Conradus de Lange var sønn av Conradus de Lange, f.1712, dåp 12/2-1712,NK, Bergen, Borgerbrev som skipper, Bergen 9/4-1772, død 1765, begravet 8/3-1765,NK, Bergen og Anne Marie Mathiasdatter Ibsen, f.1714, dåp 1/1-1715, KK, Bergen. De giftet seg 17/3-1750, NK, Bergen. Hedvig Munthe Angell var datter av Morten Henrik Angell, f. 1713, dåp 6/9-1713, Stavanger, Borgerbrev som baker, Stavanger, 23/1-1738, død 1756, begravet 15/7-1756, DK, Stavanger, og Agnethe Eriksdatter Leganger, f. 1717 Hovland, Torvastad, død 1756, begravet 3/5-1756, Stavanger. De giftet seg 1742 i Stavanger.

Sølvi Arntzen, Bergen, 08.03.2004 17:27 (3):
Conradus de Lange var iflg Bergens historiske forenings skrifter nr. 38, 1932, A.M.Wiesener, født 1747, så da kan han ikke være sønn av A.M.M.Ibsen, men av sin fars andre kone, Anne Cathrine Jochumsdatter Smith, død 1748.

Johan Erland, Oslo, 08.03.2004 20:49 (4) :
Conradus de Lange var gift med Hedvig Munthe Angell, og var født 1754. Hans far, med samme navn, var gift tidligere med Anna Catharina Smith og hadde 2 tidligere sønner med samme navn fra dette ekteskapet. Kilde Digitalarkivet og Family Search. Morten Henrik Angell var sønn av Thomas Hammond Angell, f. 22/12-1682, Trondheim, død 1715, Stavanger, og var gift 18/2-1710, Stavanger med Gjertrud Knudsdatter Koch, f. 1692 Stavanger, død 1758, Stavanger.
53. Jacob Aaland, Nordfjord - frå gamle dagar til no, Dei einskilde bygder, Innvik-Stryn, Sandane, Solglimt Trykkeri AS, II.
54. Olav Ones, Bygdebok for Lindås, Lygra og Hudvin sokner, Gards og personhistorie, Lygra og Hundvin bygdeboknemnd, Grafisk Hus a.s, Bergen, 2000, 2.
55. Sigrid Tønder Lilleås, Tønderslekt - Sogn-Kragerø-Vikedal i Ryfylke, Sigrid Tønder Lilleås, Sigrid Tønder Lilleås.
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